Different genres are read including biographies, historical fiction, realistic fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and fantasy. Trade books are used throughout the year to teach and emphasize comprehension skills such as: main idea and details, cause and effect, compare and contrast, predicting outcomes, drawing conclusions, problem and solution, summarizing, critical reading, fact and opinion. Literary skills are also emphasized such as: story elements, figurative language, dialogue, vocabulary, sound devices (rhyme, alliteration, etc.) Grammar units include sentence sense, types of sentences, subjects and predicates, capitalization, punctuation, parts of speech (nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs), sentence and paragraph revision. Writing projects complement reading units, and the writing process is emphasized throughout the year. Journals and various projects such as narratives, letters, poems, advertisements, descriptions and comparison articles are written. Spelling generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, endings, possessives, contractions, antonyms, synonyms, context clues, and syllabication are emphasized. Words introduced on Monday with practice work during the week are then tested on Friday. A review of phonics skills taught in previous grades (consonants, short and long vowels, syllables, consonant blends and digraphs, word structure, suffixes and prefixes) is also utilized.